^ Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2015-01-01). "Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes". Journal of Food Science. 80 (1): E101–107. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12715. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 25471637.
Thank you so much for putting this information together. I really like this site. I am excited to follow it and learn more. I am in a company that does adaptogens and recently started seeing and learning that some of the EO’s are also adaptogens. I started using some and got some terrific results. Lots of stress that has been relieved. Then I had started to lose weight and after about 46 lbs found I could use grapefruit and frankincense and it was helping with taking away the wrinkles a saggy parts. Maybe you could cover this in some of your articles..

Thyme is often used to treat respiratory problems. Thyme essential oil can help central sleep apnea, which is caused by a miscommunication between the brain and respiratory system. Thyme essential oil helps keep the respiratory system strong and healthy, and is often used as a natural treatment for the cold. Like lavender, it also has antibacterial properties.
According to a systemic review and meta-analysis published in Pain Research and Treatment, there is a significant positive effect of aromatherapy, compared to placebos or control treatments, in reducing pain. Researchers evaluated 12 studies on this topic and found that essential oils were especially helpful in treating postoperative pain, obstetrical pain and gynecological pain. (14)
A reputable company will test the oil to meet the standard of the plant species. “Ideally, purchase your oil from a company or manufacturer who performs gas chromatography and mass spectrometry testing,” says Dr. Axe. This kind of testing measures the mass within the oil samples and identifies the compounds. Read the company’s website or call the customer service line to find out about its testing before you purchase the essentials oils. 

Essential oils are plant compounds extracted from bark, flowers, leaves, roots, stems, seeds, or fruit. Steam distillation is the most common process for extracting plant oils, but heavier materials, such as citrus peels, are cold-pressed. Once the extraction process is complete, what remains is a concentrated plant oil that contains the healing aromatic compounds of that specific plant.


It is important that people research the oils they are using – as not all EO’s are created equally and MANY on the market can be harmful when used improperly. Industry standards are very lax and an EO is only required to have a minimum of 2% essential oil in the bottle to be classified as pure – the rest can be synthetics or fillers. I chose Young Living Essential Oils because I know – without a doubt that from the minute the seed is planted to the minute it goes into the bottle – proper care and precision has been taken to ensure only the highest quality oil on the market. Young Living is the ONLY company in the world who has taken it one step further by having our own farms, doing our own harvesting, cultivating, distilling, testing and bottling of our products as well.
SMH at all of these Young Living Distributors saying their oils are the most pure and safe to be ingested. People, do your research please before being scammed by these distributors. There are third party sites that test the oils from different companies. Young Living oils are not more “pure” nor are they safe to be ingested without consulting a certified aromatherapist who is trained to know what amount of what oils can safely be ingested and by who. Some ages or people with certain conditions cannot ingest this or that oil. 1 drop of Lemon EO is equivalent of consuming like 1000 lemons. Young Living and Doterra and any other MLM company’s oils are more expensive not because they are pure but because they have to feed MANY mouths down the MLM chain. There are many companies out there that have pure oils without additives that are WAY more affordable. I am not a seller or a certified aromatherapist. I am just tired of all these MLM distributors spreading lies just so they can make a buck.
This curated list of the top 10 best essential oil brands contains oil companies discovered by myself during my training towards becoming a Certified Aromatherapist. This is a list, not a ranking. The essential oil brand that is best for you will depend on a mix of things: how you’ll use the essential oils; how many of them you need; and how much you’re comfortable paying for your oils.

It’s easy to fall into the aforementioned "there’s an oil for that" mentality because many people use similar oils for common ailments. But with aromatherapy, it’s equally important to consider your personal smell preference. For example, Spikenard’s sedative effect makes it a go-to for insomniacs. But I know some people who just cannot stomach the smell and would prefer to use lavender or vetiver for sleep. Aromatherapy is an intimately personal science; It’s not one size fits all when it comes to blending.
Avoid purchasing or storing essential oils that are packaged in bottles that include rubber eyedropper bulbs in the top. Over time, essential oils are strong enough to dissolve the rubber dropper and contaminate the oil. Instead, small retail sizes of essential oils tend to be sold in bottles that include an orifice reducer that is made out of a material that won't contaminate the oils. If essential oils are packaged or stored in bottles that do not include an orifice reducer, a pipette can be used to dispense essential oils by the drop. Larger sizes of essential oils tend to be packaged and without orifice reducers because larger bulk sizes of essential oils tend to be purchased by those that prepare larger recipes and measuring by the drop would be inappropriate for them. For more information, see AromaWeb's Essential Oil Storage article.
The essential oils industry is not regulated by the FDA, making comparison shopping quite difficult. Some essential oil brands use certain terminologies, others use different names for the same thing. A huge question lately is whether or not you can safely ingest essential oils. Some brands advertise internal use of essential oils, and others advise against it. I recommend to spend some time and get to know an essential oils brand first before you get their products through your door and trust them with the well-being of yourself and your family.
When we inhale the aroma of an essential oil, it immediately kicks our body into action as its molecules travel through the olfactory system into our brain. From there, it can directly affect the many bodily reactions and systems, including emotions, memory, blood pressure and heart rate, breathing, hormones, and stress. One simple whiff of a concentrated essential oil can almost instantaneously trigger our bodies into action, causing the production of feel-good neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.
The Ananda Apothecary may be a slightly lesser-known name and strangely hard to pronounce. However, it’s a company of true essential oils people where you can buy almost any type and variety of essential oil you can imagine. Most importantly, they offer wild crafted essential oils, which are oils made from wild harvested plant materials and not plants grown on farms. You can also purchase organic oils certified by both the USDA and Ecocert ICO, and specially AGED essential oils. If all of these things are new to you, find more details in my full brand review here.

I really like DoTerra brand essential oils. I have many of them and find them high quality. All essential oils that are sold are in business. Whether it’s MLM or not. I don’t have a problem with that at all (but maybe it’s just me). Young Living was once considered by many to be the “best” but now that DoTerra’s been on the market (I don’t know, maybe five years or so?) they have competition. Apparently people from Young Living (I’m not sure if that’s the name) broke away and started DoTerra. In any case, if it’s purity and therapeutic grade I personally think both are good companies. Some like DoTerra more so that’s what got me started on them.
Rehne is a Certified Aromatherapist, medical auditor, and former instructor and educator on anatomy and physiology. Rehne is a professional member and the Central Director for Louisiana for the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy and a professional member of Alliance of International Aromatherapists. Rehne was trained at the Aromahead Institute with additional courses including: Ayurvedic Application of Essential Oils, Fundamental Chemistry with Dr. Joy Bowles, and Essential Oil Masterclass with Robert and Hana Tisserand. Rehne is passionate about the importance of aromatherapy in a healthy lifestyle. Rehne has written for the (now retired) inline book The Biblical Herbal and continues to enjoy writing for Healthy Living magazine, a publication of Nature’s Warehouse. She is the owner and operator of Soul Essentials Duo in Ponchatoula, La.
This peaceful, calming scent provides a range of benefits from inner harmony to decreasing irritability, overthinking, anxiety, and worry. A 2012 study in the journal Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine found chamomile oil could provide meaningful antidepressant activity in addition to its observed anxiolytic activity. In other words, it could potentially ease anxiety symptoms in patients.
Poisoning by lavender is uncommon. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the LD50 values for lavender taken orally and applied topically were determined. In mice, the oral LD50 was 13.5 ± 0.9 g/kg, where central nervous system depression occurred 10 to 15 minutes following ingestion and death occurred 1 to 3 days later.47,48 Similar results were observed in rats.47 For dermal applications, the LD50 was greater than 5 g/kg, with no systemic symptoms or deaths in rabbits observed up to 14 days.48 In humans, an 18-month-old boy ingested homemade lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) extract. Three hours following the ingestion, the child developed confusion and deep drowsiness, with adaptive motor response to painful stimuli indicative of moderate brain injury (Glasgow Coma Score = 9). His neurologic status normalized within 6 hours of hospitalization, and a follow-up electroencephalogram was normal at 24 hours. Comparative toxicology analysis between the boy's blood, urine, and pure lavandin extract showed linalyl acetate, linalyl formate, and acetone were detected in all samples. Acetone, which was a confounding factor for coma in the poisoning, was found to be slightly higher than normal in healthy adults and was concluded not to be the cause of the central nervous system depression.49

As a person who suffers from anxiety/ depression. I appreciate information like this! This is one of the main reasons I started using oils and I have already experienced relief with Bergamont (my fav!), Lavender & Frank. I love to diffuse those 3 with Pink Grapefruit and not only does it smell amazing… I instantly feel better! Just purchased Neroli and Chamomile today… can’t wait to see how they work/ smell as well!
For example, it is proven that stimulating oils can enhance a person’s concentration over long periods of time, and that sedative formulations can be used to calm and relax individuals who may suffer with bouts of sudden anger. In addition, those with dementia can benefit in other ways from using these types of oils too, as they can reduce agitation and feelings of anxiousness.
56. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, Allgulander C, Bandelow B, den Boer JA, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014; 28 5: 403- 39. DOI: 10.1177/0269881114525674. PubMed PMID: 24713617. [PubMed]

Hi. Faith. Thanks for sharing about NOW essential oils. In the last two months, I have been learning about EOs and bought several NOW oils at GNC, with the initial intent of using them in more natural cleaning products, getting away from many that are chemical-based and hard to breathe when using. I cannot say that they have had any health benefits for me yet, as I am fortunate to not be prone to a lot of illness, but I have bought NOW grapeseed oil and have used lavender in it on my skin, and have used peppermint for headaches, but I am still learning. I did, however, just purchase the NOW diffuser, two actually, which just arrived this past Saturday afternoon, and I have been enjoying blending oils for scent.


NOW Foods runs an in-house full facility laboratory and utilizes third party testing only when necessary. They do put their oils through Gas Chromatography (GC) testing and Infrared Spectometry. A selection of their assortment are USDA certified organic essential oils, and their oils are natural and 100% pure. One jasmine blend is clearly labeled as synthetic, but it is the only one in their assortment and the reason is explained on NOW’s essential oils FAQ page here, basically justifying the synthetic scent due to the very high price of pure jasmine oil.

The great thing about Jatamansi essential oil is that it is powerfully relaxing and sedating without making you overly sleepy or tired, which is important for being able to treat anxiety during the day. Many herbs and essential oils for anxiety can also make you tired, which is not ideal if you have social anxiety and need something that allows you to be alert and awake during the day but very relaxed mentally and emotionally. However, Jatamansi does also help with insomnia and anxiety-related sleep issues as well due to its generally calming effects on the nervous system as a whole.
It’s important to note: sandalwood has also been shown to increase wakefulness and alertness, even when it is also triggering physical relaxation. Everyone reacts to scents differently. Sandalwood may deliver sleep benefits for some people, while for others, it may promote wakeful, attentive relaxation. If that’s the case for you, sandalwood isn’t right for nighttime, but you can use it during the day to feel relaxed and alert.
You can ingest some essential oils and there are good reasons to do so. If they’re awesome outside the body, perhaps they would be inside too? They’re antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, etc. Of course you need to be careful and use good judgement. Too much of anything can be bad for you. Candy companies & chocolatiers have been doing it for ages and there’s no reason you can’t too. I’m off to make some lavender blueberry scones. Good morning!

Organic certification only applies to the growing method for the plants used to make the essential oil. It does not carry any guarantee of purity or potency beyond that. On the other hand, many companies (including doTERRA) very carefully source their oils and even though they may not come from certified organic operations (which is expensive and cost-prohibitive) the oils produced are very pure and potent. Check out LearnEssentialOils.com for a free guide to finding high-quality essential oils. Good luck!
I have spent a lot of time on here debunking the myths put forth by glassy eyed cult followers and over zealous MLM reps and the main stream aromatherapy community loves it when I do this. But turnabout is fair play. Now its time to clear up a myth on the other side of aromatherapy. I see almost daily where people say things like “therapeutic grade” doesn’t exist or there is no such thing as a therapeutic grade standard. But to say there is no such thing as a TG standard is like saying there is no such thing as essential oils.
One thing I like about Rose Mountain and Organic Infusions is that I can get 30 ml bottles for the EO’s that I use most frequently. They also, both, have a large selection of other products and I’ve found their oils to be good quality. Organic Imfusions labels its products as Certified Organic or just organic, meaning the farm hasn’t been certified. Rocky Mountai Oils has a good selection of oils and blends but not a lot else. Some of their singles I really love but I got a peppermint that smells like cat pee to me. For what it is worth, I still use all 3 of these companies.
Thank you for all this info. While a patient in the hospital, I would sprinkle a mix of lavender, eucalyptus, and peppermint oils in my pillow. It helped with my headaches and allowed me to relax. The nurses kept coming into my room just to inhale the wonderful scents. They took such great care of me that, after I was discharged, i went home and made 50 bottles of the same mixtures in cobalt blue bottles with roller balls. They loved them so much! They use them at home and at work. Being a nurse myself, I understand what they go through on a daily bases and how much these oils will benefit them. Even one of my doctors took several bottles I’ve made to give to patients!
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I’m familiar with EO at one time I used YL the only problem with that is they were to expensive in my opinion. So I quit for awhile. I deal on a daily basis with fibromylgia,osteoarthritis and anxiety. Due to all this my doctor took me off of a sleeping pill said I was sleeping to much in the day plus I went to the library for a free class about sleeping patterns and I was told to get off the OTC sleeping meds. Wow want to talk about a withdraw plus the lack of sleep I was getting. I was like an owl still sleeping in the day up at night. I had to do something. My sister told me about piping rock that’s where she’d been getting her essential oils. So I got my Lavender and Bergamont and at reasonable prices.Their great I sleep well now.
The simplest way to incorporate essential oils into one’s daily life is by inhaling them, she says—either via a diffuser that disperses fragrance into the air, or by sprinkling a few drops on objects like your pillow at night. (Essential oils can also be applied to the skin, used in bathing, or mixed into creams and lotions. But some people may find them irritating when applied topically, especially if they’re not diluted.)
Roman Chamomile Essential Oil can be especially helpful in combating the feelings of anxiety. Petitgrain Essential Oil is steam distilled from the leaves and twigs of the bitter orange tree (it is not phototoxic). It helps to balance out the sweet, floral aroma of Roman Chamomile Essential Oil. Atlas Cedarwood Essential Oil is moderately grounding, calming and also helps to bring balance to the aroma of this anxiety essential oil blend.
If you get sick of lavender, Gillerman recommends clary sage. "It's a terrific muscle relaxant, and clary sage has a really potent effect on the hormonal system, which would be highly effective for people whose lives are being ruled by difficult hormonal shifts in their body." Think anything from menstruation and pregnancy to other hormonal disorders. In fact, clary sage oil could reduce cortisol levels by up to 36 percent and has an antidepressant-like effect, according to a study published in the Journal of Phytotherapy Research. (Did You Also Know That Essential Oils Can Help With PMS Symptoms?) 
What’s interesting about Chamomile is that it is also good for calming, healing and reducing inflammation in the digestive tract as well. Most people are not aware that a major portion of our nervous system is located in our intestines, also know as the “enteric nervous system” by doctors or, more commonly, as our “second brain” or “gut brain.” In fact, more than 90% of the body’s serotonin is produced in the gut, as well as about 50% of the body’s dopamine. Furthermore, your intestines produce and co-regulate 30 other neurotransmitters identical to those found in your brain that are used by your central nervous system to regulate mood, stress levels, sleep patterns, mental functioning and any number of other essential body processes.
This diffuser has several features that make it ideal for when you’re trying to fall asleep. It has seven color-changing lamps to set the mood, it works as a nightlight if you want to use it in a child’s room, and it has an auto-shutoff feature and a timer so it will safely turn off after you’ve fallen asleep. It diffuses your oils for up to six hours, so you can continue to reap the benefits of your favorite sleepy essential oil for most of the night.

Aromatherapy is the practice of inhaling the scent of essential oils to improve your well-being. One theory of how they work is that by stimulating the smell receptors in your nose, they can send messages to your nervous system. They are also thought to have a subtle effect on the body’s chemical and energy systems. Because of this, aromatherapy is often used as a natural remedy to relieve anxiety and stress.
While essential oils have risen to popularity in the modern era, phytotherapy is as old as humanity itself. The study of natural compounds and extracts used as medicine is found in every culture in history, and evidence of phytotherapy in practice dates back to as early as 3500 B.C.E. Much of the extraction of medically beneficial compounds from plants and their parts was done using simple methods such as hydrodiffusion, vaporization, decoction, and the use of basic solvents.
Please note – since this series was written, Rocky Mountain Oils has purchased Native American Nutritionals. Native American Nutritionals was the original company, but the two companies had a partnership. Then Rocky Mountain Oils (RMO) purchased NAN and now RMO is new company.  I am even more confident in the quality of oils now that this all has taken place.
Essential oils, including LEO, are complex compositions of compounds that may contain up to several hundred distinct chemical entities. They vary in constituents in a manner similar to that of herbal products, because the aromatic compounds produced are a function of the botanical products' genetics, growth conditions, and oil extraction process. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry has aided in untangling which constituents occur most frequently, allowed insight into variability among LEOs, and given clues about which constituents may be primarily active. For example, one analytic study found varying concentrations of linalool (26.73%-57.48%) and linalyl acetate (4.01%-35.39%) among 9 different LEO samples.25 This concentration variability leads to significant heterogeneity in products used in different studies and adds to the difficulty in delineating results.

Help reduce the effects of maturing skin, such as wrinkles, lines and patchy pigmentation, with the Anti Age Synergy essential oil. This oil was produced by Robert Tisserand to help promote healthy, youthful skin. Ingredients include natural essential oils for balancing, soothing, and smoothing the skin such as Palmarosa, Copaiba, and Rose Absolute. While you can't reverse time or diminish the effects of weather exposure and poor habits, Plant Therapy's Anti Age Synergy can work to slow down the symptoms of aging skin.
Due to the versatile uses for Lavender, it is a popular must-have essential oil. Used topically, Lavender reduces skin irritations and eases the tightness in leg muscles. Used internally, this oil calms the nerves and promotes restful sleep. Used aromatically, Lavender fills the air with a light floral scent that soothes, comforts, and restores a sense of calmness.
It’s easy to get a whiff of peppermint, rosemary, or orange oil as you handle each of them since all it takes is a minuscule amount to give off the characteristic smells. But it takes large amounts of raw materials and painstaking extraction processes to obtain an ounce of the essential oil. Needless to say, this is reflected in their high price.  
Floracopeia’s goal is not only to offer great essential oils, but also to help create sustainable ecological, environmental and economical situations that support the small, rural farmers and distillers, as well as the planet. Their Eco-Projects, like the wild agarwood trees in Thailand, reduce illegal harvesting and help create a sustainable forestry system while supporting the livelihoods of the local villagers. And just like Stillpoint, David and Sara offer trainings and certifications in Aromatherapy.
Content is a specialty blend of 10 essential oils crafted to boost metabolism and support weight wellness. Used internally, in combination with exercise and a healthy Isagenix weight management program, Content helps you control hunger cravings and promotes a positive emotional attitude. Content is not recommended as a topical or aromatic application method.
However, Dalton notes that what works for one individual might not work for another. “Aromatherapy is effective, but in my experience there are no prescriptions that work for everyone,” says Dalton. “It's far better to find what works for you.” That's another way of saying there's a huge psychosomatic aspect to essential oil usage, which isn't necessarily a bad thing.
Lavender Organic essential oil is one of our most popular oils because of its many, many useful properties. This oil promotes a calm and relaxed mental state, while relieving any stress and nervous tension. Lavender Organic can also help support healthy skin by reducing the appearance of scars, wrinkles, and soothe any other damages like sun exposure or burns.
What you could do is use one of the safer mint essential oils as a flavoring. I have a great recipe for peppermint brownies and just made homemade ranch with Basil EO. If you have a highly tested pure oil than the therapeutic benefits are really great for using certain ones as flavoring in food or water. Always use a very pure oil that says safe for internal use on the bottle and that is on the FDA’s GRAS list. Peppermint is a great one to replace Wintergreen but Spearmint would also really work and has a more gentle effect in regard to its therapeutic properties.
I’m sensitive to many sources and when my acupuncturist applied peppermint oil to an aching shoulder it sent me right into orbit. Anxiety and blood pressure were out of control for several days. I have always been able to eat peppermint with no problem but the oil while applied to the skin was way too intense. Now just the scent of it sets me off. Be careful.
In fact, one of the most ancient methods of cleansing the body is also still one of the best! Essential oils have been in use for literally thousands of years. UTNE describes how history shows evidence of essential oils use for both physical and spiritual cleansing as far back as 1500 B.C.E.! Practitioners of Ayurvedic healing, Chinese medicine and holistic healers have been quietly continuing to use simple, natural essential oils to accomplish whole body cleansing.
In this post, you can see that I ended up recommending them, but this was really a surprise for me. After thinking that I was writing them off, I got a call back from the owner of Native American Nutritionals, and I talked with the owner for a few hours (at first….that turned into many hours in the upcoming month) and found that he really “knew his stuff.”
Essential oils prices at The Ananda Apothecary are fair, not too steep but also not too good to be true. Their specialty oils like Sandalwood, Helichrysum, or Rose are properly and fairly priced higher (as they should be), indicating a true quality product behind the label rather than a quick sale. Certain essential oils are just more expensive due to the incredible amount of effort and volume of plant materials required to produce the bottle of oil you buy.
The Mountain Rose Herbs essential oils actually come in a variety of price ranges. I’ve found some of them quite approachable, but certain oils are again on the expensive side. It depends which one(s) you’re looking for, so the best thing you can do is have a look at their website and shop for the oils you’d like. Keep in mind, this will all be certified organic that you’re purchasing, so the extra dollars spent may be worth the investment.

The Young Living Speech you give is completely inaccurate and part of the genius marketing used by YL. Oils that have “do not consume” are protecting themselves from lawsuits, it’s a reasonable label statement. I am an educator at a major US University teaching essential oil studies. I have worked in production and quality control of essential oils.
Another method of inhalation is to place a few drops of a gentle, non-irritating, and diluted essential oil, such as sweet orange, rose, or vetiver, in the palms of your hands. Rub your hands together to warm and release the properties of the oil. Next, cup your hands over your nose and take five deep, slow breaths to help quiet feelings of anxiety or stress.
What would be more accurate is that the more “pure” the oil is the more caution you should use in internal dose (“consumption”) – which is one of the least effective ways to use essential oils because they are broken down by the liver before absorption into the blood stream. If an oil is closer to a synthetic flavoring, like that used in chewing gum, then it would be deemed safer for consumption. I assume what YL sells as pure for use in consumption is similar to pure synthetic flavoring.
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